Online: [journals.openedition.org/ejpap/945]. . Regarding their relation to pragmatism, the critical realists no doubt saw certain affinities. This becomes particularly clear from Lovejoy’s contribution to the 1920 essay volume. 9 See, in this connection, already Lovejoy 1908; further, for an evaluation, Kuklick 2017. Boodin died in 1950. He categorically distinguishes between “prediction and control of certain practical situations” (1911b: 60), on the one hand, and “nature in the abstract” (ibid. 48However, a more charitable reading would account for the fact that the systematical and historical relation of pragmatism and realism, as it were, provoked the sort of eclectic fusion to be found in Boodin’s later work. the sort of eclectic fusion to be found in Boodin’s later work. Perry Ralph Barton, (1912), Present Philosophical Tendencies: A Critical Survey of Naturalism, Idealism, Pragmatism, and Realism, Together With a Synopsis of the Philosophy of William James, New York, Longmans, Green. It should be noted that Ostwald – unlike Boodin – not only rejected materialism, but also atomism. Boodin John Elof, (1909), “What Pragmatism Is and Is not,” Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods, 23, 627-35. The concluding remarks of this paper are sufficiently explicit: “Personally, I have a decided liking for Professor James, and I am sure that in expressing it I voice the opinion of many. MRes Philosophy of Knowledge: ... Pragmatism Critical Realism Realism Radical Constructivism Social Constructivism Reductionism Rationalism Empiricism Positivism is not about Truth, but Method! But the major purpose of the paper is obviously to establish functional realism as an autonomous position. Boodin 1911b: 58) as well as from his focusing on the pragmatic element in knowledge. Roving Philosophical Report (Seek to 4:46): Lin Gu investigates the difference between pragmatism in China and the United States, asking Americans to define the pragmatism they are known for worldwide. And it is more than obvious that his principal inspirations were promoted by his tight academic contacts with James and Royce at Harvard. They postulate things in themselves with properties in themselves. Boodin attempted to tackle this sort of challenge. by the assertion that: To be means simply to express, to embody the complete internal meaning of a certain absolute system of ideas, – a system, moreover, which is genuinely implied in the true internal meaning of purpose of every finite idea, however fragmentary.” (Royce 1900, 36). Michael Heidelberger & Friedrich Stadler (eds), History of Philosophy of Science: New Trends and Perspectives, Charles S., (1905), “What Pragmatism Is,”, Present Philosophical Tendencies: A Critical Survey of Naturalism, Idealism, Pragmatism, and Realism, Together With a Synopsis of the Philosophy of William James, John H., (1966), “Josiah Royce and American Idealism,”, Skepticism and Animal Faith: Introduction to a System of Philosophy, Roy Wood, (1908), “Critical Realism and the Time Problem,”, Critical Realism: A Study of the Nature and Conditions of Knowledge. As concerns his primary sources of inspiration, he mentions James, Royce and “the vitalizing influence in our country of its great teacher, John Dewey, and the Chicago School” (1916: ix). […] Real processes occur all around us of prime importance for our welfare. On the other hand, he explicitly demarcates his position from “the movement sometimes called ‘the new realism’”. A Winter Revery.” It appeared in, had appeared in 1907. Site map – Contact – Website credits – Syndication, OpenEdition Journals member – Published with Lodel – Administration only, You will be redirected to OpenEdition Search, European Journal of Pragmatism and American Philosophy. At any rate, Boodin starts his article with the following characterization: In the first place, pragmatism as a doctrine is so simple and so old as a matter of scientific procedure that it is impossible to understand why so much dust should have been raised about it by its opponents. Thus the weight of a body varies at different points of the surface of the earth; it is, in other words, a function of the attraction of the earth. idealism - seeking perfection in everything, philosophy that the mind is the only reality. Yet it is important to emphasize that this does not imply a “relapse” to materialism. Boodin transferred his college studies to the University of Minnesota and made acquaintance with the work of William James. All in all, one might suspect that Boodin eventually got lost in the -isms. Their most outstanding contribution was the cooperative volume The New Realism, which appeared in 1912. For him. (Boodin 1916: 389)19. Our next task will be to determine what he made out of this kind of situation. In general, critical realists hold that knowledge of the world can be gained because there is some sort of reliable correspondence between sensa, or some sort of intuitive data, on the one hand, and external objects on the other. Among Boodin’s fellow graduate students were the later influential realist philosophers Arthur O. Lovejoy, William Pepperell Montague, Edwin B. Holt, and Ralph Barton Perry. In its opening paragraph the following is clarified: “Prof. Moreover, one might wonder how ‘functional’ realism is related to pragmatism. Being one of nineteen children of a farmers family (his father had married twice), he, at the age of 18, decided (like a couple of his siblings) to emigrate to the United States. A Winter Revery,”, John Elof, (1909), “What Pragmatism Is and Is not,”, Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods, John Elof, (1911a), “From Protagoras to William James,”, Truth and Reality: An Introduction to the Theory of Knowledge, A Realistic Universe: An Introduction to Metaphysics, John Elof, (1930), “Nature and Reason,” in, Contemporary American Philosophy: Personal Statements. 13 In James’s words, the same message reads thus: “The ‘absolutely’ true, meaning what no farther experience will ever alter, is that ideal vanishing-point towards which we imagine that all our temporary truths will some day converge. Just as in the case of Ostwald (cf. 31Just as in “Pragmatic Realism” (which was included as chapter XIV in Truth and Reality), Boodin divorces himself from any metaphysical reading of the realist stance. The knower and the known are related through certain energetic dependencies. (Nelson 1984: 137), 3In 1897, Boodin eventually entered Harvard (on a Hopkins scholarship). 41Let us now make a time jump to 1934. “Truth in science is what gives us the maximum possible sum of satisfaction, taste included, but consistency both with previous truth and with novel fact is always the most imperious claimant.” (Ibid. In his view, energy is to be conceived of as an “Urstoff” (1916: 15). Would Boodin have focused on Sellars’s account of critical realism, his critique, I maintain, would not have worked. And each artist is paid at least through the joy of the working and the appreciation he feels for such momentary beauty as each can produce. Whereas, is, according to its subtitle, an “Introduction to the Theory of Knowledge,”. It runs on all fours with the perfectly wise man, and with the absolutely complete experience.” (James 2017 [1907]: 82). (Editorial Comment to Boodin 1908: 306), 20As is well known, the Monist’s editor-in-chief, German-born Paul Carus, stood in close contact to the pragmatists. […] In the realm of truth, as well as art, man must be the measure, however finite and passing the measure may be. For the time being, it is important to note that, according to Boodin, any talk of truth requires some basis in the extra-mental realm. Slurink Pouwel, (1996), “Back to Roy Wood Sellars: Why His Evolutionary Naturalism Is Still Worthwile,” Journal of the History of Philosophy, 34, 425-49. James’s “Does Consciousness Exist?” is a good example in this respect. Accordingly, metaphysics “implies, and furnishes the inspirations of, the special sciences” (ibid.). The object, in other words, is dependent upon the cognitive moment not for its existence, but for its significance. Ostwald 1895) energetics (or “energism”) qualifies as an alternative to the materialistic point of view. To begin with, when Boodin published his “Functional Realism” the philosophical context had significantly changed as compared to the time when, came out. In contrast to both idealism and materialism this kind of metaphysics is driven by criticism instead of dogmatism in terms of method. 3 It is, by the way, quite difficult to determine what the distinctive characteristic of “European” pragmatism could be. 2. is obviously prefigured in Sellars’s writings. URL: http://journals.openedition.org/ejpap/1547; DOI: https://doi.org/10.4000/ejpap.1547, Universität Tübingenmatthias.neuber[at]uni-tuebingen.de. Hi, It is, by the way, quite difficult to determine what the distinctive characteristic of “European” p. Whether Boodin’s specific variant of philosophical thinking should be seen as an expression of “European pragmatism” is hard to say. Interestingly enough, the dedication of that book reads as follows: “To my friend and teacher William James, not the late but the ever living and inspiring genius of American philosophy, this book is affectionately dedicated.” The five years later published, , then, is dedicated to “my friend and teacher Josiah Royce.” In programmatic terms, Boodin argues in that book for what he now calls “pragmatic energism” (see Boodin 1916, esp. There is no supervision as yet, in fact the plan is that there shall be no supervision of the work as a whole. ch. Werkmeister writes in this connection: “James was instrumental in preparing the way for realism. Whereas Truth and Reality belonged to the theory of knowledge, A Realistic Universe is, Boodin writes, “a volume on metaphysics” (ibid.). In Boodin’s words: It should be noted that Ostwald – unlike Boodin – not only rejected materialism, but also atomism. Boodin 1916: 33). Misak 2013, ch. His major contributions to theoretical philosophy are the following: the 1911 book Truth and Reality; the 1916 book A Realistic Universe; and an article published in 1934 (in The Philosophical Review) titled “Functional Realism.” In Truth and Reality, Boodin explicitly argues for what he calls “pragmatic realism” (see Boodin 1911a, esp. He points out: While such a theory, with abundant illustrations from natural science, accounts for how knowledge can control the world of processes, it leaves us in the dark as to the real question – the relevancy of knowledge to its object. DeForge, R., Shaw, J.: Back-and fore-grounding ontology: exploring the linkages between critical realism, pragmatism, and methodologies in health & rehabilitation sciences. Section 5 concludes the paper with some critical comments. experience, at any rate, seems to depend in many ways upon an extra-experiential constitution” (1916: 16). Kuklick Buce, (2001), A History of Philosophy in America, 1720-2000, Oxford, Clarendon. Be that as it may, the particularly realistic element in Boodin’s approach to pragmatism had obviously to do with his European, Swedish, roots. However, James’s influence upon them was obviously the trend-setting factor. and that “[o]ur standards of measurement, whether of energy, time, or space, are all alike pragmatic” (ibid.). 24On the whole, Boodin applauds the Jamesian variant of pragmatism. 10It can hardly surprise that statements like these provoked a realist reaction. More generally, “[p]roperties have no meaning for science, except as energy determinations, characteristics within energy systems” (ibid. They both assume that to say that substances and qualities exist independently of the environment has a meaning. I hope that for the rest of his life he will remain as buoyant and spirited as he has ever been, and will meet with unlimited recognition. Boodin knew no English when he arrived in Colchester, Illinois, in 1887. Pragmatism: An Annotated Bibliography, 1898-1940, Michael R., (2011), “William James’s Pluralism,”, Pouwel, (1996), “Back to Roy Wood Sellars: Why His Evolutionary Naturalism Is Still Worthwile,”, A History of Philosophical Ideas in America. His own approach, Boodin maintains, “has little in common with it [i.e., new realism; M.N.] At any rate, Boodin’s contributions to the complex discussion of realism, pragmatism, and their mutual relationship are worth reconsidering. 6 Although the later works of W. Sellars, specifically the Sellars one finds in Science and Metaphysics, is willing to concede some ground to the pragmatist tradition, I am primarily concerned with W. Sellars’ work leading up to the publication of Science and Metaphysics in 1968. Their most outstanding contribution was the cooperative volume, , which appeared in 1912. In the paper, Boodin repudiates both of these two forms. […] It is nonsense to speak of an hypothesis, which is our meaning or attitude, as true previous to verification; but previous to verification there exist certain conditions, which make some hypotheses come true.” (Boodin 1911b: 228). A Winter Revery.” It appeared in The Monist in 1908. , as it was primarily established in the German-speaking area by thinkers such as Wilhelm Ostwald and Georg Helm. He obviously knew of Peirce’s 1905 contribution for The Monist (Peirce’s paper had the title “What Pragmatism Is”). Accordingly, relativity is “a fundamental characteristic of energy systems” (ibid. For further details, see Werkmeister 1949, chapters 5-9. in 1937. In fact, the actual problem is to understand why Boodin thinks his own approach needs to be so sharply distinguished from critical realism. John Elof, (1908), “Philosophic Tolerance. However, as Sellars repeatedly stressed (see, for example, Sellars 1924: 383), there existed two “wings” within the critical realist movement: a metaphysical (“essentialist”) wing, primarily represented by the work of Santayana, and an empirical (“naturalist”) wing, primarily represented by Sellars’s own contributions. In Boodin’s words: The conception of energy has gradually supplanted the conception of matter as a universal ideal of description. Anyway, the actually important point is that by ‘realism’ he essentially understands an “epistemological attitude” (ibid. Our next task will be to determine what he made out of this kind of situation. James William, (1909), A Pluralistic Universe. 14 In this case, too, an Editorial Comment was attached. It is a place where everybody has something to do. Here worship is work and work is worship. For him, as for James, truth, “so far as we are finite seekers are concerned, is a limit which we are far from having realized. 34In the preface to his 1916 Realistic Universe, Boodin delivered a couple of programmatic clarifications. The concluding remarks of this paper are sufficiently explicit: “Personally, I have a decided liking for Professor James, and I am sure that in expressing it I voice the opinion of many. This paper joins a broad discussion of the relationship between John Dewey's pragmatism and the tradition of critical theory. Thus in an article from 1905, titled “The Realism of Pragmatism,” Dewey points out: It should be noted that the very term “critical realism” was used by Sellars as early as 1908 (see, It is a well-known fact that, in the further course of the twentieth century, pragmatism became the predominant philosophical current in the United States (cf. (Drake et al. In Royce’s opinion, there is no way out of our “absolute system of ideas.” Reality itself is an idea, and it is for this reason that Royce, quite frankly, states: “[W]e propose to answer the question: What is to be? 11 See, in this connection, his extended critique of James’s variant of pragmatism in Carus 1908. Pragmatism on Education Envision Develop and apply knowledge and become an individual who can exercise choice and take responsibility for their actions. Moreover, his Harvard student fellows, such as Holt, Montague or Perry, attempted to interpret James’s account of pragmatism within a realistic framework.2 Accordingly, a fusion of pragmatism and realism seemed to be en vogue among the younger Harvard generation. Robert J., (1983), “The Energetics Controversy in Late Nineteenth Century Germany: Helm, Ostwald, and Their Critics,” PhD diss., Yale University. 21The announced critical discussion of pragmatism as “a system of philosophy” can be found in Volume No. , vol. 17 In his Pragmatism, James explicitly states that „[t]ruth happens to an idea. This was the year when Boodin’s “Functional Realism” appeared in The Philosophical Review. In 1899, Boodin finished his dissertation on “The Concept of Time.”. See, in this connection, Kuklick (2001: 202-3). It was the greatest disappointment of his life that this did not happen.” (Nelson 1984: 145). To be sure, the bifurcation of thing and environment figured prominently within the framework of new realism.20 However, from the standpoint of critical realism, there is no such bifurcation. I have met him repeatedly and have felt the sympathetic charm of his personality. Carus Paul, (1908), “Pragmatism,” The Monist, 18, 321-62. Rather, “[t]he thing must suggest an own center of energy”, . 10). At the same time he speaks of “my friend Royce” (1908: 303), mentions the latter’s “absolute idealism” (1908: 300) and suggests that “[i]deals may prove truer than facts”, . Abstract. The change meant a change of language, a change of history and tradition. Regarding the situation in late nineteenth-century American philosophy, it can be said that idealism, especially in the form advocated by Royce, was the prevailing point of view.4 Royce’s Gifford Lectures, delivered at the University of Aberdeen in two series in 1899 and 1900, proved to be particularly impactful. is, according to Boodin, only a halfway house. As, on the other hand, Werkmeister makes it particularly clear, Royce’s variant of idealism was by no means the only idealistic statement at that time. Even during his lifetime, Boodin had the impression that his philosophical contributions were not sufficiently appreciated. In a small way, this book tries to serve both purposes. Whereas, is, Boodin writes, “a volume on metaphysics”, . Boodin 1916: 3). Critical realism was developed most notably in the work of Ram Roy Bhaskar (2007; 2015), who developed it as a comprehensive philosophy of knowledge and being that offers an alternative to both positivism and constructivism, although it is arguably still somewhat dwarfed and/or marginalised by …
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