MANGROVE FOREST RESTORATION AND REHABILITATION TECHNIQUES COURSE REPORT November 22-24, 2019 Sungai Hitam, Samboja Sub-district, East Kalimantan, Indonesia A field training organized by: Environmental Leadership & Training Initiative (ELTI) Research & Development Institute for Natural Resource Conservation Technology (BALITEK-KSDA) Ten of the world's least developed countries are now prioritizing mangrove restoration in their NAMAs. IUCN and The Nature Conservancy are producing a global map with cutting edge analysis on the potential for, and challenges to, mangrove restoration. [20] The estimated impacts of REDD+ globally, could reach up to 2.5 billion tons of CO2 each year. Box 5430, Salt Springs, Florida, USA, 32134-5430. [29] It has also been found that areas surrounding mangrove forests are subject to less damage from cyclones than non forested areas.[30]. Dr. The survival rate and preserving rate of mangrove plants are the key to the restoration of mangrove forests. The Reef Ball Foundation has developed techniques for increasing the success of mangrove plantings. MacCracken, P.R. MAP’s CBEMR is an alternative mangrove restoration technique developed to overcome the high rate of planting failure. In 2008, the United Nations launched the "Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD)" program to combat climate change through the reduction of carbon emissions and enhancement of carbon sinks from forests. A summary of coastal wetland carbon, including mangroves, is seen in the accompanying image. Type in your point of interest and you will get a list of available selections from a global search address database. Additionally, they protect riparian zones by absorbing floodwaters and slowing down the flow of sediment-loaded river water. An example of this can be seen in Bangladesh, where the government initiated the plantation of 50,000 hectares of mangrove forest to stabilize coastal areas, in an attempt to tackle increasing erosion. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. 13. Moreover, any attempt at planting or facilitating natural succession of mangroves will fail if seedlings cannot tap their roots into stable soils. Mangrove restoration areas in Mainland China accounted for <7% of the total mangroves areas in 2002. Mangrove restoration requires the cultivation of healthy seedlings and propagules for transplantation. Each site has unique environmental conditions and threats to mangrove ecosystems, and our experts employed distinct restoration techniques at each location, directly restoring 33 hectares (81.54 acres) of mangrove habitat and benefiting 150 hectares (370.66 acres) of additional mangrove habitat. Wetland Science and Practice. This Unit will introduce students to the techniques that have been used to restore or increase mangrove areas and teach students the key steps and considerations necessary before and after the implementation of rehabilitation and planting activities and projects. Mastrandrea, and L.L. A short look at Mangroves against the storm. Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability",, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Mangrove nursery practices were designed to assist mangrove seedlings to gradually adapt to the environmental conditions of the restoration sites with minimised mortality rates. Involving local stakeholders right from the outset, this process encourages the mitigation of mangrove stressors and the facilitation of natural regeneration where at all possible. Type in your point of interest and you will get a list of available selections from a global search address database. The Guyana Mangrove Restoration Project was executed during 2010-2013 under the National Agricultural Research & Extension Institute. Wetland plants, like mangroves, take in carbon dioxide when they perform photosynthesis. To thrive, mangroves rely on well-balanced quantities of incoming sediment. The pre-condition for success is to conduct an initial survey of representative habitats in areas close to the chosen site that should focus on 1. With their dense network of roots and … However, to do this, it is vital for mangrove forests to be able to rely on a deep and thick soil layer in which to dig their complex root systems. Loose sediments are swept into mangroves with the tides and river currents, where they are trapped and supplemented with organic matter to form stable soils – a vital foundation. All too often this is due to inadequate attention to sediment supply. Mangrove Restoration About; The Nature Conservancy; Legal Disclosure; These are links that will take you to the Coastal Resilience website for more project background. on the conservation and restoration of these valuable forests. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Wetlands and Water Synthesis", "Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Abstract. Upstream logging and intensive agricultural practices increase sediment runoff. Mangrove species (number of trees of each species per hectare) 2. Natural hydrological systems must supply adequate amounts of sediment in order to prevent sediment starvation on the one hand – and prevent sediment oversupply on the other. Lewis, Roy R. "Methods and criteria for successful mangrove forest restoration", Chapter 28, pp. 98.00 CNY. Mangrove Restoration in Galveston Bay: Ecological Benefits and Effective Restoration Techniques Final Report Prepared by: Department of Marine Biology Texas A&M University at Galveston (TAMUG) Principal Investigator (PI): Anna R. Armitage Funding Source: Fiscal Year 15 Clean Water Act Section320 Quarto, Alfredo, Mangrove Action Project. Specific techniques for mangrove restoration vary in terms of the process used, but primarily consist of restoring site conditions to those that are conducive to mangrove growth and waiting for mangrove propagules to colonize the site. 2006). We have years of success using Reef Balls, in establishing a nursery for growing, and replacing areas where the wave action might keep natural growth from happening. Mangrove forest is composed of mangrove family of plants, the Rhizophoraceae, or even more speci๏ฌ- It is projected that a 1-meter rise in sea level could inundate and destroy mangrove forests in many regions around the globe,[4] which would leave coastal communities vulnerable to the risks of flooding, shoreline erosion, saline intrusion and increased storm activity.[5]. Mangrove forests are extraordinary survivalists facing the full fury of the sea. Planting Mangroves is not difficult provided that one observes some basic guidelines. This innovative restoration method is a four component system made up of a wrack protector, a cultivator pot, a “reef safe” slow release fertilizer disc, and a root-developing anchor. Mangrove valuation techniques were reviewed and results of case studies were presented and compared. LATEST ON OUR PROJECTS. [15] Therefore, it is suggested that if the correct policy is implemented, countries like Indonesia can make considerable contributions to global carbon fluxes.[14]. The refuge was the first established in the world, when President Theodore Roosevelt designated it in 1903. Chowdhury A., Naz A., Bhattacharyya S. (2019) Plantation Methods and Restoration Techniques for Enhanced Blue Carbon Sequestration by Mangroves. An important but often overlooked aspect of mangrove restoration efforts is the role that the local communities play as stakeholders in the process and the outcome. In contrast, too little sediment input can deprive mangroves of sufficient material to build soils in which to grow. The innovative application of marsh and mangrove restoration techniques developed by CRG resulted in stopping existing erosion and expansion of this important bird nesting area. In the IPCC AR5 report, the potential of ecosystem-based adaptation (EBA) to climate change is discussed, which includes the restoration of mangroves. Depth of water [โ€ฆ] Mangroves are essential to maintaining water quality. These NGOโ€™s have since restored 215 ha of degraded mangroves. 2011. Increasing carbon dioxide and nitrogen enrichment can augment the ability of Spartina to suppress growth of mangrove seedlings, and thus change the competitive relationship between the vegetation types ( McKee and Rooth, 2008, Zhang et al., 2012b ). Their lives depend on it. Estrada, R.C. Mangrove restoration at the smallest scale โ€“ her e in an e ort to reduce coastal erosion in Florida. mangrove restoration was afforestation for silviculture, with coastal stabilization and environmental mitigation or remediation being additional objectives. Flynn has worked with Mr. Lewis to complete over 20 local restoration projects including the restoration and preservation of islands within Pelican Island, the nation’s first National Wildlife Refuge, and the restoration of approximately 100 acres of mangrove, salt marsh and oyster habitat near the Alafia River, Tampa Bay. Table 1 gives a summary of the countries that have undertaken some form of mangrove rehabilitation, the main mangrove species utilized, the goals of the projects, the extent of the mangrove area rehabilitated and the area of mangrove naturally occurring. We measure mangrove ecosystem services such as fisheries, wave attenuation and microclimate regulation. [6] A recent estimate puts the total mangrove area worldwide in 2005 at 152,000 km2 – down from 188,000 km2 in 1980. Part A:Global and Sectoral Aspects. Mangrove nursery techniques were based on application of standard propagation and rearing methods for terrestrial plants (Clarke & Johns 2002). [17] Therefore, in recent years, there has been more focus on the importance of mangroves, with initiatives being developed to use reforestation as a mitigation tool for climate change. [8] However, even without this extent of degradation, the soil may become unable to host plant life at all due to the loss of the live mangrove roots, which exuded oxygen and carbohydrate into the soil and maintained its quality. Different restoration approaches face this challenge in different ways. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of theIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change[Field, C.B., V.R. Securing adequate sediment provision in mangrove systems is critical for conservation and restoration efforts. Taking this into account, it becomes crucial to the success of a restoration project to evaluate what the hydrology of a disturbed mangrove site should look like under normal conditions, and the ways in which it has been modified. A Thematic Study Prepared in the Framework of the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005", FAO Forestry Paper 153, 2007. The mangrove pot, that breaks down over time is one of the recent developments. Elsevier Press, 2009. Specific techniques for mangrove restoration vary in terms of the process used, but primarily consist of restoring site conditions to those that are conducive to mangrove growth and waiting for mangrove propagules to colonize the site. [1] Since environmental impacts are an ongoing threat, to successfully restore an ecosystem implies not merely to recreate its former condition, but to strengthen its capacity to adapt to change over time. Kissel, A.N. The Kannur Kandal (Mangrove Restoration) Project aims to ensure the survival of existing mangroves and increase the acreage of such coastal wetland habitats across Kannur, potentially making it a prototype for other coastal districts in Kerala and the rest of the country. The roots of the mangrove physically buffer shorelines from the erosive impacts of ocean waves and storms. A short look at Mangroves against the storm. Many recent mangrove restoration attempts have been ineffective, with planted seedlings suffering high mortality rates or being swept out with the tides, and natural recolonisation proving unsuccessful. Concept Note for EMR Workshops in Asia and Latin America", 2010. Mangrove systems suffering from an imbalance of sediment supply will lose their efficiency in providing coastal resilience and clean water. Environmental Regulation Office of Coastal Zone Management and the NOAA Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management. Mangroves among the most carbon-rich forests in the tropics. Mangrove forests, along with the animal species they shelter, represent globally significant sources of biodiversity and provide humanity with valuable ecosystem services. Mangrove forests have a potential to mitigate climate change, such as through the sequestration of carbon from the atmosphere directly, and by providing protection from storms, which are expected to become more intense and frequent into the 21st century. As can be seen, most of this carbon is located in Indonesia, followed by Brazil, Malaysia and Nigeria. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. Using a participatory action research methodology, this study showed the successful establishment and operation of a mangrove nursery on the landward side of a sea dyke, on acid "Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Wetlands and Water Synthesis", World Resources Institute, Washington, DC, 2005. [7] In other words, some 36,000 km2, or nearly 20% of the world's mangroves, were lost over a period of twenty-five years. In a recent report Mangrove restoration: to plant or not to plant, Wetlands International describes an effective method for establishing permeable structures nearshore, which reduces wave impact and allows sediment accumulation along the coastline. to conduct a coaching workshop for Tanzanian government agencies and civil society. Brinson (eds.) Genova, B. Girma, E.S. [28] Evidence suggests that this initiative was successful in increasing accretion of coastal sediment, which reduced coastal erosion in this area and protects coastal communities from flooding and storm events. Assess the ecology, especially reproduction and distribution patterns, of the mangrove species at the disturbed site; Map the topographical elevations and hydrological patterns that determine how seedlings should establish themselves at the site; Assess the changes made to the site that currently prevent the site from recovering by itself; Design a restoration plan that begins by restoring the normal range of elevations and tidal hydrology at the site; and. [24] Mangrove restoration and protection is also seen as a climate change mitigation strategy under COP21, the international agreement to target climate change, with countries being able to submit the act in their Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Approaches (NAMAs). This may be caused by dams or other structures on the coast, which prevent natural flow of water to the mangroves. One example of this approach is the Ecological Mangrove Restoration method [10] which recommends the following steps, to be undertaken using healthy mangroves of the surrounding area as a reference: The actual planting of seedlings is a last resort, since it fails in many cases;[10] it should be considered only if natural recruitment of seedlings fails to reach the restoration objective. Wong, P.P., I.J. Mangrove restoration plot where ferns are cleared in rows for mangroves to be planted. A great deal of research papers on Chinese mangroves has been published in international journals. When mangrove forests trap and bind sediments to build soils, they provide essential services to people and adjacent ecosystems. Each component works together to protect and promote optimal growth of the juvenile mangrove. affordable mangrove restoration techniques in the Pacific Islands region (Gilman et al. ", Society of Wetland Scientists Research Brief. Mangrove restoration is the regeneration of mangrove forest ecosystems in areas where they have previously existed. 4. Techniques for Restoration and Reconstruction of Mangrove Forests in China By Liao, Baowen, Li, Mei, Chen, Yujun, Guan, Wei. The method — which he calls ecological mangrove restoration — is more difficult and less photogenic than planting pretty rows of seedlings. [9] This approach usually fails over the long term because the underlying soil and hydrological requirements of the mangroves are not being met. The map aims to stimulate commitment among decision-makers and investors for mangrove ecosystem restoration on a landscape scale.
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