Phonetic variation of Vietnamese tones in disyllabic utterances. [10] Subsequently, vowels of rimes ending in labiovelars have been diphthongized, while vowels of rimes ending in alveolar have been centralized. Arguments for the second analysis include the limited distribution of final [c] and [ɲ], the gap in the distribution of [k] and [ŋ] which do not occur after [i] and [e], the pronunciation of ⟨ach⟩ and ⟨anh⟩ as [ɛc] and [ɛɲ] in certain conservative central dialects,[10] and the patterning of [k]~[c] and [ŋ]~[ɲ] in certain reduplicated words. Each syllable has a tone and each tone changes the semantics of a word. It denotes a mid-low dropping pitch. Introduction: SVG chart designs and advantages. 87: Maroon 5 - Memories. First, the Vietnamese name of the tone is given, then its diacritic, then a rough English description, then examples. (1969). It is sometimes said (by people from other provinces) that people from Nghệ An pronounce every tone as a nặng tone. Do you need advice on extending your typeface to support Vietnamese? Also known as: 四声 (sìshēng). Find our recommended shades from the LÓREÁL, GARNIER, and SCHWARZKOPF hair color ranges. The Vietnamese vowels include the same vowels that are used in English – a, e, i, o, u, and y. This results in a three-way contrast between the rimes ăn [æ̈n] vs. anh [æ̈ɲ] vs. ăng [æ̈ŋ]. Han (1966) uses acoustic analysis, including spectrograms and formant measuring and plotting, to describe the vowels. Vietnamese Alphabet Chart Vietnamese Language Alphabet Vietnamese Writing Vietnam Alphabet Vietnamese Words Vietnamese Letters Vietnamese Phrases Vietnamese Accent Alphabet Vietnamese Writing Characters Vietnamese Cursive Vietnamese Writing Symbols Vietnamese Script Georgian Alphabet Vietnamese Handwriting Viet Alphabet Vietnamese Vowels Vietnamese Accent Marks Vietnamese Tones … In the US Vietnamese is the fifth most spoken language, outside of Vietnam Vietnamese is increasingly being taught in schools and institutions. The “accents” are part of the alphabets. In addition, diacritics are used to indicate the tones of Vietnamese. Vietnamese Vowels With Accents. Without it, you will not be able to say words properly even if you know how to write those words. The Vietnamese Tones Details Last Updated: 17 April 2018 The Vietnamese Tones and Tone Marks Vietnamese is a tonal language. There is much variation among speakers concerning how tone is realized phonetically. Two main varieties of Vietnamese, Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), are described below. C2: The optional coda C2 is restricted to labial, coronal, and velar stops and nasals /p, t, k, m, n, ŋ/, which cannot cooccur with the offglides /j, w/. A phonetic study of Vietnamese tones: Reconsideration of the register flip-flop rule in reduplication. Pronunciation of Vietnamese tones. Can you be understood as long as you use the correct phonotation? This observation is also made by Phạm (2008) and Kirby (2011). One analysis, that of Thompson (1965) has them as being phonemes /c, ɲ/, where /c/ contrasts with both syllable-final t /t/ and c /k/ and /ɲ/ contrasts with syllable-final n /n/ and ng /ŋ/. I don't speak any Vietnamese. There is considerable evidence for this classification in such processes as reduplication, neutralization, assimilation of borrowings, etc. Top 30 Singles Chart Vietnam. A. There are six tones in Vietnamese, each of which is represented by a different diacritical mark. When combined, it must be positioned clearly from another mark (ẵ, ẫ, ễ, ỗ, ỡ, or ữ). Now that we’ve learned the pronunciations of the basic components, let’s move on to discuss how you can learn to pronounce correctly a new Vietnamese word. Introduction 2. tones of Vietnamese could be analysed into two series: ngang-sắc-hỏi corresponding to ancient voiceless initials and huyền-nặng-ngã corresponding to ancient voiced initials. Alves, Mark J. It denotes a low dropping pitch and must be positioned clearly below the baseline. Vietnamese is a tonal language. (1997). History The Vietnamese language is an Austro-Asiatic language, of the Mon-Khmer language branch. The Vietnamese syllable structure follows the scheme: In other words, a syllable has an obligatory nucleus and tone, and can have an optional consonant onset, an optional on-glide /w/, and an optional coda or off-glide. Nặng is the only tone written below the letter. The letters y and i are mostly equivalent, and there is no concrete rule that says when to use one or the other, except in sequences like ay and uy (i.e. Av… Journal of Phonetics 2, 223 – 232. doubly articulated) or are strongly labialized [k̚ʷ, ŋʷ]. Originally classified solely as a Mon-Khmer language, it has been more recently discovered that the Vietnamese language is separate enough to warrant having its own language branch, which is Muong. En général, seule la forme au masculin singulier est donnée. JCMcGee. It denotes a high rising pitch. In Vietnamese, vowel nuclei are able to combine with offglides /j/ or /w/ to form closing diphthongs and triphthongs. 1966. I couldn't find a Phonemic chart, but I found a chart that compares Vietnamese sounds with English, somewhat (note all vowels here a neutral): And in case you need tones too: These are both Northern Vietnamese, the kind Duolingo Background on the Vietnamese Language: Consonants, Vowels, and Tones This brief description of the consonants, vowels, and tones of Vietnamese will be very simple. Therefore, it is a good idea to learn the Vietnamese alphabet and Vietnamese vowels well, before moving forward to learn the Vietnamese tones. Vietnamese Vowels With Accents Below you will find a list of Vietnamese vowels with accents. These are not phonemically distinct from the huyền and nặng tones, however, and hence not considered as separate tones by modern linguists and are not distinguished in the orthography. There’s a perfect hair color for every indian skin tone out there. There are differences between varieties of Vietnamese spoken in the major geographic areas (northern, central, southern) and smaller differences within the major areas (e.g. In Vietnamese orthography, tone is indicated by diacritics written above or below the vowel. Here is a concept image (different from the actual chart, which has a range of tones too large to be reproduced on a web page). Initial consonants which exist only in the Hanoi dialect are in red, while those that exist only in the Saigon dialect are in blue. [22] This follows the lead of traditional Chinese phonology. (ma = ghost) High-rising tone: begins high and rises sharply. The articulation of these rimes in North Central dialect are [oːŋ], [oːk̚] without a simultaneous bilabial closure or labialization.[16]. Let’s break down these individual tone marks. [12] Otherwise, some Southern speakers distinguish /k, ŋ/ and /t, n/ after /u, o, ɔ, iː, ɨ, aw, a, aː, ɛ, ə, əː/ in formal speech, but there are no Southern speakers who pronounce "ch" and "nh" at the end of syllables as /k, ŋ/. An older analysis assumes eight tones rather than six. 92: CHANYEOL & Punch - Stay With Me. The first three patterns, SFR:quadrants, SFR rectangles, and Distortion grid or checkerboard , are available in all versions. In addition, there seems to be variation among individuals. Biggest collection of worldwide artists, songs and music videos. The table below summarizes these sound correspondences: The IPA chart of vowel nuclei above is based on the sounds in Hanoi Vietnamese; other regions may have different inventories. She states that the primary difference between orthographic ơ & â and a & ă is a difference of length (a ratio of 2:1). Vietnamese tones was clearly explained by André G. Haudricourt (1954). Last Words on Skin Undertones. Rimes ending in /k, ŋ/ merged with those ending in /t, n/, respectively, so they are always pronounced /t, n/, respectively, after the short front vowels /i, e, a/ (only when /a/ is before "nh"). He reconstructed Vietnamese tonogenesis in terms of three stages: I. Il est généralement placé après le nom et s'accorde avec le nom (ex : un ballon bleu, une balle bleue). For practical purposes it can be said that Vietnamese tones do not change according to the context. Tones. Nguyễn (1997) has a simpler, more symmetrical description. The short back vowels in the rimes have been diphthongized and centralized, meanwhile, the consonants have been labialized. Here Best Vietnamese Language Online Courses , Vietnamese alphabet is a Latin alphabet. Depending on the tones, the word “ma” can mean ghost, mother, which/but, tomb, horse or rise seedling. Tweet; Tweet Vietnam’s Top 30 Digital tracks, refreshed weekly, every Monday morning. For a full profile of the language, the serious student can read A Vietnamese Grammar by Laurence C. Thompson (1965, University of Washington Press), the source of our summary. When combined, it must be positioned clearly from another mark (ẳ, ẩ, ể, ổ, ở, or ử). • Vietnamese is a tonal language. In this course, we will cover the basic pronunciation of Vietnamese tones and examples on the same words with different tones. The meaning of Vietnamese words depend on how it is pronounced. Henderson, Eugénie J. These instructions will help you to install the proper Vietnamese characters on an iMac, eMac, PowerBook, Mac Mini, or Power Mac running Mac OS X. Southern Vietnamese speakers were asked to read all six Vietnamese tones but were specifically instructed to read them in their southern accent, which allowed us to confirm whether the two falling-rising tones in Southern 2.2 Tones are stable A major difficulty in learning Vietnamese is the tone system (see 3.4 below). The following rimes ending with velar consonants have been diphthongized in the Hanoi dialect, but /i/, /u/ and /ɨ/ are more open:[10]. "A Look At North-Central Vietnamese." Vietnamese tones include the following: 2 But for Vietnamese, I’ve found only charts which are a result of measuring actual speech, and they are not that useful for a student. While looking at the tone chart above, listen to the rising and falling tones, and make an educated guess about the tone that's written. In the chart below, the tones … Towards a prosodic statement of the Vietnamese syllable structure. Is there a similar simplified diagram for Vietnamese tones? It should rise slightly toward the left of the base character (à) without falling off. With the exception of the "dot below", all other tone marks are placed above the vowel of a word. Vietnamese, just like many Asian languages, is a tonal language. So, his chart above is more a phonological vowel chart rather than a phonetic one. Thompson (1965) says that the vowels [ʌ] (orthographic â) and [ɐ] (orthographic ă) are shorter than all of the other vowels, which is shown here with the length mark [ː] added to the other vowels. Vietnamese adj adjective: Describes a noun or pronoun--for example, "a tall girl," "an interesting book," "a big house." In. A further contribution was made by André G. Haudricourt in his seminal article De l'origine des tons en vietnamien (1954). Most of the remaining patterns are available in Imatest Masteronly. A study of Middle Vietnamese phonology. Tones. For this reason, a separate phonemic /ɲ/ is posited. The six tones are: Mid tone: produced at the relative middle of your voice range. This analysis interprets orthographic ⟨ach⟩ and ⟨anh⟩ as an underlying /ɛ/, which becomes phonetically open and diphthongized: /ɛk/ → [ăjk̟̚], /ɛŋ/ → [ăjŋ̟]. The IPA chart of vowel nuclei above is based on the sounds in Hanoi Vietnamese; other regions may have different inventories. Find out live performances, eurovision entries and thousands of top 40 music charts. No tone mark is used. Hanoi vs. other northern varieties). 1.2. Each syllable has a tone and each tone changes the semantics of a word. Here Best Vietnamese Language Online Courses , Vietnamese alphabet is a Latin alphabet. Spoken tones matter in song just as they do in language - otherwise the words won’t mean the same. When stops /p, t, k/ occur at the end of words, they have no audible release ([p̚, t̚, k̚]): When the velar consonants /k, ŋ/ are after /u, o, ɔ/, they are articulated with a simultaneous bilabial closure [k͡p̚, ŋ͡m] (i.e. More explicitly, the syllable types are as follows: C1: Any consonant may occur in as an onset with the following exceptions: w: the onglide /w/ (sometimes transcribed instead as labialization [ʷ] on a preceding consonant): V: The vowel nucleus V may be any of the following 14 monophthongs or diphthongs: /i, ɨ, u, e, ə, o, ɛ, ə̆, ɔ, ă, a, iə̯, ɨə̯, uə̯/. A hook above (dấu hỏi) is a tone mark that resembles a dotless question mark placed on vowels: ả, ẻ, ỉ, ỏ, ủ, and ỷ. (1996). If you hear a high falling tone then it's always written with a 2nd tone. Bitmap patterns consist of arrays of pixels stored as standard image files, in distinction to Vector graphic patterns (below). However, they are always pronounced /k, ŋ/ after the other vowels /u, o, ɔ, iː, ɨ, aw, a, aː, ɛ, ə, əː/. The oong, ooc and eng, ec rimes are few and are mostly loanwords or onomatopoeia. 90: JENNIE (from BLACKPINK) - SOLO. I noticed in this analysis of tone production that there seems to be a lot of variation between speakers, even among those from the same area, implying that phonation is more important than contour. ơ = /ɜː/, â = /ɜ/; a = /ɐː/, ă = /ɐ/. Yabla Chinese Pinyin Chart with Audio Yoyo Chinese Pinyin Chart Mandarin Chinese Phonetics Table Free Pinyin Chart Apps AllSet Learning Pinyin (iOS) ChinesePod Pinyin App (iOS, Android) Instructional Pinyin Videos One of the first concepts you need to learn when tackling Mandarin Chinese is tones.You'll often hear that there are four main tones, although there is also a "neutral tone," so you sometimes hear it said that there are five. With the above phonemic analyses, the following is a table of rimes ending in /n, t, ŋ, k, ŋ͡m, k͡p/ in the Saigon dialect: Vietnamese vowels are all pronounced with an inherent tone. In Middle Chinese, syllables ending in a vowel or nasal allowed for three tonal distinctions, but syllables ending with /p/, /t/ or /k/ had no tonal distinctions. Gregerson, Kenneth J. The biggest collection of worldwide artists and songs. The nặng tone are pronounced as low rising tone (12) [˩˨] in fast speech or low falling-rising tone (212) [˨˩˨] in more careful utterance. There is only one triple consonant in Vietnamese which is used commonly in making words and sentences. In writing, one tone is represented as unmarked (a), four are indicated with diacritics marked on a vowel (á, à, ả, and ã), and one is marked with a dot under a vowel (ạ). The glottalized stops are preglottalized and voiced: Historically, a distinction is made between, While there are small consistent spectral differences between, Six tone contours are possible for syllables with offglides, If the syllable is closed with one of the oral stops. Pour former le féminin, on See more ideas about vietnamese alphabet, letters for kids, alphabet. Print height can be selected in cm (for prints) or pixels (for standard video/screen sizes). According to Hannas (1997), there are 4,500 to 4,800 possible spoken syllables (depending on dialect), and the standard national orthography (Quốc Ngữ) can represent 6,200 syllables (Quốc Ngữ orthography represents more phonemic distinctions than are made by any one dialect). An unmarked tone (ngang) has no accent. His vowels above are only the basic vowel phonemes. Her formant plots also seem to show that /ɜː/ may be slightly higher than /ɜ/ in some contexts (but this would be secondary to the main difference of length). Problemes de la formation du systeme vocalique du vietnamien. In C. Féry, A. D. Green, & R. van de Vijver (Eds. If the first consonant is also nasal or liquid, you'll need to add a preceding h- to the syllable to change the tone to high class. Vietnamese is a tonal language. Notice that this article mostly follows Han (1966), with the exception of marking short vowels short. Therefore, it is a good idea to learn the Vietnamese alphabet and Vietnamese vowels well, before moving forward to learn the Vietnamese tones.. Brilliant, thank you! Ancient Vietnamese was a toneless language. Vietnamese Tones As you may know, Vietnamese is a tonal language, which means that words can differ in tones. There are six tones (though some parts of the country don’t pronounce them all) and they are represented by symbols that actually quite closely match their sound. Help to correct. Tones And I - Dance Monkey. Vietnamese is a tonal language, i.e. A grave, which starts from a wide top and ends with a narrow bottom, denotes a low pitch. The four tones of Mandarin are defined by pitch contour – high, rising, low, and falling. The rule of thumb is reversed when it comes to choosing the right hair colour from the hair color chart. Before the reunification of Viet Nam in 1975, the North and South were split into … A grave (dấu huyền) is a backward-slash accent placed on vowels: à, è, ì, ò, ù, and ỳ. April 29, 2016. Vietnamese is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam and it is spoken by 76 million people. I couldn't find a Phonemic chart, but I found a chart that compares Vietnamese sounds with English, somewhat (note all vowels here a neutral): And in case you need tones too: These are both Northern Vietnamese, the kind Duolingo teaches us. Harris, Jimmy G. 2006. Thompson (1965) says that in Hanoi, words spelled with ưu and ươu are pronounced /iw, iəw/, respectively, whereas other dialects in the Tonkin delta pronounce them as /ɨw/ and /ɨəw/. The spellings may look the same but by adding different tones, these words can … There are six distinct tones; one of the tones ("no tone") is just a level… When the three checked tones are separated, the stop codas /p, t, k/ become allophones of the nasal codas /m, n, ŋ/ respectively, because they are in the complementary distribution in which the former three appear in the checked tones and the latter three appear in the non-checked tones. In the chart below, the tones are listed. Vietnamese Alphabet Learning the Vietnamese alphabet is very important because its structure is used in every day conversation. According to the author, sắc-nặng tones derive from an ancient final glottal stop, hỏi-ngã tones from an ancient final spirant while, by contrast 1. An underdot (dấu nặng) is a dot placed under vowels: ạ, ẹ, ị, ọ, ụ, and ỵ. All rights reserved. Tang – Cross-linguistic Analysis of Vietnamese and English 4 of homes. Warm skin tones should pick cool colors, while cool skin tones need to wear warm colors. Vietnamese contour vowels - /ie/, /ɯɤ/ and /uo/ - should be grouped with these eleven monophthongs /i e ɛ a ɐ ʌ ɤ ɯ u o ɔ/ based on their similarities in phonetic and phonological behaviors. Another analysis has final ⟨ch⟩ and ⟨nh⟩ as representing different spellings of the velar phonemes /k/ and /ŋ/ that occur after upper front vowels /i/ (orthographic ⟨i⟩) and /e/ (orthographic ⟨ê⟩). Warm skin tones should pick cool colors, while cool skin tones need to wear warm colors. iann dior. nowadays (no tone) (3 tones) (6 tones) ba Vietnamese has 6 tones, including: Less common rimes may not be represented in this table. T: Syllables are spoken with an inherent tone contour: Below is a table comparing four linguists' different transcriptions of Vietnamese vowels as well as the orthographic representation. they pronounce /k, ŋ/ as [k͡p, ŋ͡m]. Vietnamese is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam and it is spoken by 76 million people. When combined, it must be positioned clearly from another mark (ắ, ấ, ế, ố, ớ, or ứ). The first analysis closely follows the surface pronunciation of a slightly different Hanoi dialect than the second. In P. T. Daniels, & W. Bright (Eds.). Tone markings are: a (no mark), à , á , ả , ã , and ạ . ), This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 18:43. Question about Vietnamese tones. Nguyễn, Đình-Hoà. Bitmaps are best for continuous-toned images, especially the sine-modulated images in some of the patterns below. There are six tones in Vietnamese language, five of which require tone marks when written, the neutral tone requires no tone mark. The ôông, ôôc (oong, ooc, eng, ec, êng, êc as well) rimes are the "archaric" form before become ông, ôc by diphthongization and still exist in North Central dialect in many placenames. They print at the printer’s maximum quality, regardless of size. Use these instructions to begin typing in Vietnamese on an Apple computer. But there is good news too. Vietnamese is a tonal language. According to the author, såc-nang tones derive from an ancient final glottal stop, hði-ngã tones from an ancient final spirant while, by contrast, ngang-huyèn tones developed within vowel-final contexts. Southern is distinctly different. The pronunciation of syllable-final ch and nh in Hanoi Vietnamese has had different analyses. Accents are used to denote six distinctive tones: “level” (ngang), “acute-angry” (sắc), “grave-lowering” (huyền), “smooth-rising” hỏi, … Many other languages also use tones, like Chinese. Featuring: Deep End - Fousheé, Life Goes On - BTS, Mood - 24kGoldn Feat. Vowel nuclei consist of monophthongs (simple vowels) and three centering diphthongs. There’s a perfect hair color for every, 91: Mỹ Tâm - Biết Khi Nào Gặp Lại . There are five tones in the Southern dialect of Vietnamese, each rep-resented in the spelling system by a mark (called a diacritic) over or under one of the vowels in the syllable. Ho Chi Minh City (formerly Saigon) has French colonial landmarks, plus Vietnamese War history museums and the Củ Chi tunnels, used by Viet Cong soldiers. (2003). Although Vietnamese is not a classic register language, voice quality as well as pitch phenomena are both important in the tone system of Vietnamese (Edmondson 1997:1) There are six tones in modern northernsac, , , Vietnamese Typography Second Edition Donny Trương Support This Book Tone Marks Vietnamese is a tonal language. Ferlus, Michel. When letters are combined with tone markings, some complex diacritics can result, such as: ắ … tay ("arm, hand") is read /tă̄j/ while tai ("ear") is read /tāj/). Vector graphic images consist of primitives such as lines, polygons, etc., that can be scaled to any size and do not suffer from the pixellation problems of bitmap images. Sep 5, 2017 - Explore Phù Thủy Nhỏ's board "Vietnamese Alphabet" on Pinterest. Nguyen Thi Duong has become the first Vietnamese runner to lead the scoreboard of Asia Trail Master, an aggregated website of runner-related competitions and results. For example “nghe” (to listen) = /ngɛ/ III. Pronunciation of the Vietnamese Alphabet Pronounce new Vietnamese words. This means that for each syllable there are six different tones that can change the meaning of a phrase. G: The offglide may be /j/ or /w/. Popnable serves music charts from 100+ countries from all over the world on a daily, weekly, monthly, and annual basis. Based on parent report, 59.2% of the children spoke Vietnamese, while less than 8% spoke (2001). Đoàn, Thiện Thuật; Nguyễn, Khánh Hà, Phạm, Như Quỳnh. Its pitch ranges from mid to high-mid. 85: Jawsh 685, Jason Derulo & BTS - Savage Love (Laxed - Siren Beat) [BTS Remix] 86: Taylor Swift - Look What You Made Me Do. Sep 5, 2017 - Explore Phù Thủy Nhỏ's board "Vietnamese Alphabet" on Pinterest. April 29, 2016. gruamaire. This article is a technical description of the sound system of the Vietnamese language, including phonetics and phonology. In this dialect, the /a/ in /ac/ and /aɲ/ is not diphthongized but is actually articulated more forward, approaching a front vowel [æ]. [9] This diphthongization also affects ⟨êch⟩ and ⟨ênh⟩: /ek/ → [ə̆jk̟̚], /eŋ/ → [ə̆jŋ̟]. There are five tones in the Southern dialect of Vietnamese, each rep-resented in the spelling system by a mark (called a diacritic) over or under one of the vowels in the syllable. Tones differ in, Unlike many Native American, African, and Chinese languages, Vietnamese tones do not rely solely on pitch contour. (Both northern and southern dialect would be interesting.) Rather, they were consistently pronounced with a short high tone, which was called the entering tone and considered a fourth tone. So perhaps a better description would be that Vietnamese is a register language and not a "pure" tonal language.[17]. The five symbols for the Vietnamese tones are: acute, grave, hook above, tilde, and dot "below", as shown in the table below. In. At that time, no families reported speaking only English at home. He says that his work is not a "complete grammar" but rather a "descriptive introduction." 84: Adele - Hello. the meaning of each word depends on the "tone" in which it is pronounced. Actually all the fonts you need are already installed and you simply To round th The Vietnamese alphabet ... as shown in the chart directly above that contrasts the difference between Middle and Modern Vietnamese. An acute, which starts from a narrow bottom and ends with a wide top, denotes a high rising pitch. For a full profile of the language, the serious student can read A Vietnamese Grammar by Laurence C. Thompson (1965, University of Washington Press), the source of our summary. languages, including those that show a four-tones system with the final -h preserved, as well as so-called "register languages". The Vietnamese alphabet (Vietnamese: Chữ Quốc Ngữ; literally "National language script") is the modern writing system for the Vietnamese language.It uses the Latin script based on Romance languages, [4] in particular, the Portuguese alphabet, [1] with some digraphs and the addition of nine accent marks or diacritics – four of them to create sounds and the other five to indicate tone. In the US Vietnamese is the fifth most spoken language, outside of Vietnam Vietnamese is increasingly being taught in schools and institutions. Below is a chart[8] listing the closing sequences of general northern speech. Similarly, the short front vowels have been centralized which are realized as central vowels /ă, ə, ɨ/ and the "unspecified" consonants have been affected by Coronal Spreading from the preceding front vowels which are surfaced as coronals (alveolar) /n, t/.[10]. Vietnamese. (of or from Vietnam) vietnamien, vietnamienne adj adjectif: modifie un nom. Contrast Resolution chart concept image The physical Contrast Resolution Chart is made from two layers of 8×10 inch photographic film. Vietnam Top 40 Music Charts has started at April 13, 2017 (Thu). It is “ngh” which pronounce the same as “ng” This consonant is always put in the beginning of words and strictly used before (i, e, ê) vowels.
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